Malleus-Maleficarum-(1486)

Malleus Maleficarum (1486)
(Title Roughtly Translates To: Hammer of Witches)
This Translation by Montague Summers [1928]
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  • This is the best known (i.e., the most infamous) of the witch-hunt manuals. Written in Latin, the Malleus was first submitted to the University of Cologne on May 9th, 1487. The title is translated as "The Hammer of Witches". Written by James Sprenger and Henry Kramer (of which little is known), the Malleus remained in use for three hundred years. It had tremendous influence in the witch trials in England and on the continent.

    The Malleus was used as a judicial case-book for the detection and persecution of witches, specifying rules of evidence and the canonical procedures by which suspected witches were tortured and put to death. Thousands of people (primarily women) were judically murdered as a result of the procedures described in this book, for no reason than a strange birthmark, living alone, mental illness, cultivation of medicinal herbs, or simply because they were falsely accused (often for financial gain by the accuser).

            ~ Section 1 ~
  • Question I
  • Whether the Belief that there are such Beings as Witches is so Essential a Part of the Catholic Faith that Obstinacy to maintain the Opposite Opinion manifestly savours of Heresy.
  • Question II
  • If it be in Accordance with the Catholic Faith to maintain that in Order to bring about some Effect of Magic, the Devil must intimately co-operate with the Witch, or whether one without the other, that is to say, the Devil without the Witch, or conversely, could produce such an Effect.
  • Question III
  • Whether Children can be Generated by Incubi and Succubi.
  • Question IV
  • By which Devils are the Operations of Incubus and Succubus Practised?
  • Question V
  • What is the Source of the Increase of Works of Witchcraft? Whence comes it that the Practice of Witchcraft hath so notably increased?
  • Question VI
  • Concerning Witches who copulate with Devils. Why is it that Women are chiefly addicted to Evil superstitions?
  • Question VII
  • Whether Witches can Sway the Minds of Men to Love or Hatred.
  • Question VIII
  • Whether Witches can Hebetate the Powers of Generation or Obstruct the Venereal Act.
  • Question IX
  • Whether Witches may work some Prestidigatory Illusion so that the Male Organ appears to be entirely removed and separate from the Body.
  • Question X
  • Whether Witches can by some Glamour Change Men into Beasts.
  • Question XI
  • That Witches who are Midwives in Various Ways Kill the Child Conceived in the Womb, and Procure an Abortion; or if they do not this Offer New-born Children to Devils.
  • Question XII
  • Whether the Permission of Almighty God is an Accompaniment of Witchcraft.
  • Question XIII
  • Herein is set forth the Question, concerning the Two Divine Permissions which God justly allows, namely, that the Devil, the Author or all Evil, should Sin, and that our First Parents should Fall, from which Origins the Works of Witches are justly suffered to take place.
  • Question XIV
  • The Enormity of Witches is Considered, and it is shown that the Whole Matter should be rightly Set Forth and Declared.
  • Question XV
  • It is Shown that, on Account of the Sins of Witches, the Innocent are often Bewitched, yea, Sometimes even for their Own Sins.
  • Question XVI
  • The Foregoing Truths are Set out in Particular, this by a Comparison of the Works of Witches with Other Baleful Superstitions.
  • Question XVII
  • A Comparison of their Crimes under Fourteen Heads, with the Sins of the Devils of all and every Kind.
  • Question XVIII
  • Here follows the Method of Preaching against and Controverting Five Arguments of Laymen and Lewd Folk, which seem to be Variously Approved, that God does not Allow so Great Power to the Devil and Witches as is involved in the Performance of such Mighty Works of Witchcraft.

            ~ Section 2 ~
  • Question I
  • Of those against whom the Power of Witches availeth not at all.
  • Chapter I
  • Of the several Methods by which Devils through Witches Entice and Allure the Innocent to the Increase of that Horrid Craft and Company.
  • Chapter II
  • Of the Way whereby a Formal Pact with Evil is made.
  • Chapter III
  • How they are Transported from Place to Place.
  • Chapter IV
  • Here follows the Way whereby Witches copulate with those Devils known as Incubi.
  • Chapter V
  • Witches commonly perform their Spells through the Sacraments of the Church. And how they Impair the Powers of Generation, and how they may Cause other Ills to happen to God's Creatures of all kinds. But herein we except the Question of the Influence of the Stars.
  • Chapter VI
  • How Witches Impede and Prevent the Power of Procreation.
  • Chapter VII
  • How, as it were, they Deprive Man of his Virile Member.
  • Chapter VIII
  • Of the Manner whereby they Change Men into the Shapes of Beasts.
  • Chapter IX
  • How Devils may enter the Human Body and the Head without doing any Hurt, when they cause such Metamorphosis by Means of Prestidigitation.
  • Chapter X
  • Of the Method by which Devils through the Operations of Witches sometimes actually possess men.
  • Chapter XI
  • Of the Method by which they can Inflict Every Sort of Infirmity, generally Ills of the Graver Kind.
  • Chapter XII
  • Of the Way how in Particular they Afflict Men with Other Like Infirmities.
  • Chapter XIII
  • How Witch Midwives commit most Horrid Crimes when they either Kill Children or Offer them to Devils in most Accursed Wise.
  • Chapter XIV
  • Here followeth how Witches Injure Cattle in Various Ways.
  • Chapter XV
  • How they Raise and Stir up Hailstorms and Tempests, and Cause Lightning to Blast both Men and Beasts.
  • Chapter XVI
  • Of Three Ways in which Men and Women may be Discovered to be Addicted to Witchcraft: Divided into Three Heads: and First of the Witchcraft of Archers.
  • Question II
  • Introduction, wherein is Set Forth the Difficulty of this Question.
  • Chapter I
  • The Remedies prescribed by the Holy Church against Incubus and Succubus Devils.
  • Chapter II
  • Remedies prescribed for Those who are Bewitched by the Limitation of the Generative Power.
  • Chapter III
  • Remedies prescribed for those who are Bewitched by being Inflamed with Inordinate Love or Extraordinary Hatred.
  • Chapter IV
  • Remedies presribed for those who by Prestidigitative Art have lost their Virile Members or have seemingly been Transformed into the Shapes of Beasts.
  • Chapter V
  • Prescribed Remedies for those who are Obsessed owing to some Spell.
  • Chapter VI
  • Prescribed Remedies; to wit, the Lawful Exorcisms of the Church, for all Sorts of Infirmities and Ills due to Witchcraft; and the Method of Exorcising those who are Bewitched.
  • Chapter VII
  • Remedies prescribed against Hailstorms, and for animals that are Bewitched.
  • Chapter VIII
  • Certain Remedies prescribed against those Dark and Horrid Harms with which Devils may Afflict Men.

            ~ Section 3 ~
  • General/Introductory
  • Who are the Fit and Proper Judges in the Trial of Witches?
  • Question I
  • The Method of Initiating a Process
  • Question II
  • Of the Number of Witnesses
  • Question III
  • Of the Solemn Adjuration and Re-examination of Witnesses
  • Question IV
  • Of the Quality and Condition of Witnesses
  • Question V
  • Whether Mortal Enemies may be Admitted as Witnesses
  • Question VI
  • How the Trial is to be Proceeded with and Continued. And how the Witnesses are to be Examined in the Presence of Four Other Persons, and how the Accused is to be Questioned in Two Ways
  • Question VII
  • In Which Various Doubts are Set Forth with Regard to the Foregoing Questions and Negative Answers. Whether the Accused is to be Imprisoned, and when she is to be considered Manifestly Taken in the Foul Heresy of Witchcraft. This is the Second Action
  • Question VIII
  • Which Follows from the Preceding Question, Whether the Witch is to be Imprisoned, and of the Method of Taking her. This is the Third Action of the Judge
  • Question IX
  • What is to be done after the Arrest, and whether the Names of the Witnesses should be made Known to the Accused. This is the Fourth Action
  • Question X
  • What Kind of Defence may be Allowed, and of the Appointment of an Advocate. This is the Fifth Action
  • Question XI
  • What Course the Advocate should Adopt when the Names of the Witnesses are not Revealed to him. Ths Sixth Action
  • Question XII
  • Of the Same Matter, Declaring more Particularly how the Question of Personal Enmity is to be Investigated. The Seventh Action
  • Question XIII
  • Of the Points to be Observed by the Judge before the Formal Examination in the Place of Detention and Torture. This is the Eighth Action
  • Question XIV
  • Of the Method of Sentencing the Accused to be Questioned: and How she must be Questioned on the First Day; and Whether she may be Promised her Life. The Ninth Action
  • Question XV
  • Of the Continuing of the Torture, and of the Devices and Signs by which the Judge can Recognize a Witch; and how he ought to Protect himself from their Spells. Also how they are to be Shaved in Parts where they use to Conceal the Devil's Masks and Tokens; together with the due Setting Forth of Various Means of Overcoming the Obstinacy in Keeping Silence and Refusal to Confess. And it is the Tenth Action
  • Question XVI
  • Of the fit Time and of the Method of the Second Examination. And it is the Eleventh Action, concerning the Final Precautions to be Observed by the Judge
  • The Third Head
  • Which is the last Part of this Work. How the Process is to be Concluded by the Pronouncement of a Definite and Just Sentence
  • Question XVII
  • Of Common Purgation, and especially of the Trial of Red-hot Iron, to which Witches Appeal
  • Question XVIII
  • Of the Manner of Pronouncing a Sentence which is Final and Definitive
  • Question XIX
  • Of the Various Degrees of Overt Suspicion which render the Accused liable to be Sentenced
  • Question XX
  • Of the Firth Method of Pronouncing Sentence
  • Question XXI
  • Of the Second Method of Pronouncing Sentence, when the Accused is no more than Defamed
  • Question XXII
  • Of the Third Kind of Sentence, to be Pronounced on one who is Defamed, and who is to be put to the Question
  • Question XXIII
  • The Fourth Method of Sentencing, in the Case of one Accused upon a Light Suspicion
  • Question XXIV
  • The Fifth Manner of Sentence, in the Case of one under Strong Suspicion
  • Question XXV
  • The Sixth Kind of Sentence, in the Case of one who is Gravely Suspect
  • Question XXVI
  • The Method of passing Sentence upon one who is both Suspect and Defamed
  • Question XVII
  • The Method of passing Sentence upon one who hath Confessed to Heresy, but is still not Penitent
  • Question XVIII
  • The Method of passing Sentence upon one who hath Confessed to Heresy but is Relapsed, Albeir now Penitent
  • Question XXIX
  • The Method of passing Sentence upon one who hath Confessed to Heresy but is Impenitent, although not Relapsed
  • Question XXX
  • Of One who has Confessed to Heresy, is Relapsed, and is also Impenitent
  • Question XXXI
  • Of One Taken and Convicted, but Denying Everything
  • Question XXXII
  • Of One who is Convicted but who hath Fled or who Contumaciously Absents himself
  • Question XXXIII
  • Of the Method of passing Sentence upon one who has been Accused by another Witch, who has been or is to be Burned at the Stake
  • Question XXXIV
  • Of the Method of passing Sentence upon a Witch who Annuls Spells wrought by Witchcraft; and of Witch Midwives and Archer-Wizards
  • Question XXXV
  • Finally, of the Method of passing Sentence upon Witches who Enter or Cause to be Entered an Appeal, whether such be Frivolous or Legitimate and Just


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