Properties of Oils, Butters, and Other Ingredients
as compiled by Sandy North

Presented as a reference in accompaniment to our INCI Names List and Shelf Life Table

Acacia Gum: Alkanna Tinctoria Root Extract Also know as gum Arabic. It is derived from the acacia tree and is widely used in the food and confectionery industry. In cosmetics it is used to stabilize emulsions and improve texture. It may also be used as a fixative and base when making incense.

Alkanet Root: A natural colorant derived from alkanet root infused in oil. Purple to Pink.
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Sweet Almond Oil: Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil The aroma of sweet almond oil is mild and the oil is protein rich and nourishing for the skin. It contains vitamins A, B1, B2, and B2 as well as a small amount of vitamin E. Sweet almond oil is popular for massage and skin care because it has a long shelf life and will blend very well with other carrier oils. A favorite for oil for aromatherapy or used on it's own for moisturizing the skin. It's known to be especially suitable for eczema and dry itchy skin. Lubricating but not very penetrating. For soap making add 1 ounce per lb. of fats. This oils goes rancid quickly. Sweet Almond Oil is often used for superfatting soaps. It is a great moisturizer, makes a stable lather and helps condition the skin. Add 1 ounce per pound of fats to your soap batch at trace. This is one of the most useful, practical and commonly used oils. It is great for all skin types as an emollient and is best known for its ability to soften, soothe, and re-condition the skin. The oil comes from the kernel and consists mainly of oleic acid, essential unsaturated fatty acids, sterolins and vitamin E. It is a great moisturizer, makes a stable lather and helps condition the skin. Iodine value 93-105
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Aloe Butter:
Is an extract of Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) using a coconut fatty fraction which produces a soft/solid. Aloe Butter is an exquisite ingredient in your lotion bars, lip balms, body balms, creams, lotions, after sun products, soaps and on its own. Melts on contact with your skin helping relieve extreme dryness. Suggested use is between 3%-100%. SAP Value 245-260
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Aloe Vera Liquid, Aloe Vera Gel
Aloe vera is used in creams and lotions. It's a well known healing and soothing agent for damaged, dry skin. It is soothing and healing for burns, skin irritations, and raw open wounds. Liquid aloe vera may be added to cosmetic formulations, soaps, and straight on the skin.
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Apricot Kernel Oil: Prunus Armeniaca (Apricot) Kernel Oil This oil is often more expensive than sweet almond oil, but it has similar actions. Often a key ingredient in facial tonics and cosmetics, this oil treats mature and sensitive skins successfully. This is a light, rich oil, especially good for sensitive skin. Used alone or in massage. It is often found in lip balms and creams. High in Vitamin A. For soapmaking, use 1-2 ounces per lb. Of fat. Creates a stable lather and is a good conditioner. This oil is similar to Almond oil except for a higher unsaturated fatty acid content. It makes lip balm feel soft and spreadable. Iodine value 92-108
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Avocado Oil: Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil A nourishing, rich, and heavy oil that is often blended with other cold-pressed oils for increased penetration. Avocado is often found in facial preparations because it is an effective treatment for dry and dehydrated skin. The unrefined oil is green in color and contains vitamins A, B1, B2, and E as well as lecithin. This oil also has a mild sunscreen. This rich New Zealand oil nourishes and restores dry dehydrated skin. It has a natural avocado color that is imparted to the products it is used in. This heavy oil is best blended with other oils for massage. It is high in unsaponifiables. Try it in a gentle baby soap. Use up to 30% as base oil. Stable lather, high conditioner. Iodine value 80-95
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Avocado Butter: Hydrogenated Avocado Oil
This ultra refined exotic butter is from tropical regions of the world. It is obtained from the oil, of the fruit, of the avocado tree. Through a unique process which produces a soft butter with a mild scent. Is known to help to moisturize and soften rough, dry, and cracked skin. Works excellent in soaps, lip balms, lotion bars, creams, lotions, & body butters. SAP Value 197.5
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Babassu Oil Orbignya Oleifera (Babassu) Seed Oil Babassu oil comes from the tall babassu palm tree native to Brazil. The oil is extracted from the kernal and is very high in essential fatty acids.
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Beeswax has the sweet smell of honey. Beeswax makes a harder bar of soap and is also used in creams, lotions, lip balms and candle making. It contains a high percentage of unsaponifiables. At best, half of these substances participate in the normal soap making reaction. You can use it at about 1 oz per lb. of oils in your base oils to make your soaps harder. Beeswax has the sweet smell of honey. Beeswax makes a harder bar of soap and is also used in creams, lotions, lip balms and candle making. It contains a high percentage of unsaponifiables. At best, half of these substances participate in the normal soap making reaction. You can use it at about 1 oz per lb. of oils in your base oils to make your soaps harder. Iodine value 25-28
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Borage Oil
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Calendula Oil
Has many therapeutic benefits and is known to successfully heal a variety of types of skin damage. (burns,wounds,dry skin) To superfat soap use 1 2/3 tablesthingys per 5 lbs of soap at trace or use up to 20% added to other oils at the beginning of the soap making process.

Canola Oil
Canola oil is a good moisturizer but is less saturated than other fats, so it can be slow to saponify. Use it in place of more expensive oils like olive. Needs to be mixed with other saturated fats in order to speed up saponification. Use as a base oil up to 50%. Iodine value of 105-120
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Carrot Oil - Daucus Carota Sativa (Carrot) Seed Oil Carrot oil is rich in beta-carotene, vitamins B, C, D, and E, and essential fatty acids. This oil also has an anti-inflammatory action, which makes it a useful treatment for burns. Carrot is often used as an anti-aging treatment and is commonly found in skin creams. This oil can be too strong to be used on its own, but blended with olive and almond, carrot can be beneficial in facial blends. Carrot oil is generally hard to find and very expensive. Great for cuticle creams.

Castor Oil Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil
Castor oil is often used to superfat. It attracts and holds moisture in the skin. Use it in combination with other vegetable oils to produce a nice hard bar of soap. You can add a bit at trace for superfatting or add it to other oils at a rate of no more than 30% in the beginning of the soapmaking process. A very moisturizing and lubricating oil that is rich in fatty acids. It acts as a humectant attracting moisture from the air to the skin. Ayurvedic medicine has long used castor oil for lumbago, sciatica and rheumatism. In soap making it is a well-known super fatting agent. It is well suited for baby products. One of the few oils soluble in alcohol. A natural source oil from the Castor bean. A hard, shiny oil that acts as a barrier agent and protective medium against harsh conditions and extremes. High lather. Iodine 82-92
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Cocoa Butter Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter
Cocoa butter is used to make soaps harder. When used in soap as a superfatting oil it acts to lay down a protective layer which holds the moisture to the skin, so it is an excellent skin softener. It has a natural chocolate scent but it is also available in unscented versions. You can use it from anywhere about 1 ounce to a pound at trace, to 15% of your total base oils, depending on your preference. This butter is prime pressed with no solvents used for extraction. A good oil for lotions, balms, and soap making. It will give firmness and emollience to lotions, massage bars and lip balms. From the seed of the Cacao Tree, has a distinguished scent of chocolate. This butter is used as an emulsifier in bath and body essentials. Cocoa butter is known to stay on the surface of the skin to help protect the skin and lock in moisture, making this a great product for creams, salves, lip balms, soaps, lotion bars, massage creams and sun care products. Some people are allergic to it. Hard bar, stable lather, high conditioning. Iodine 33-45
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Coconut Oil - Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil Coconut oil is highly saturated, which means it will remain stable for a long time, making it a useful ingredient in cosmetic preparations. This doesn’t even look like oil, like you would think of oil. This is a solid oil. Coconut oil makes soaps lather beautifully but can be drying when it makes up a large portion of your soap's fats. It will make a very hard, white bar of soap with abundant lather. It even lathers in very hard water or even sea water. Coconut oil is a saturated fat. Use it at a percentage of no more than 20-30% in your base oils. Comes in 76 and 92 degree versions, this is more or less a melting point. 92 is harder at room temp and can make a harder bar of soap. 76 is great for lotions that you don’t want too thick. High lather. Iodine 5-10
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Cottonseed Oil
Cottonseed oil produces thick and lasting lather, in addition to having emollient properties. It can be vulnerable to spoilage depending on the season, so use less of this oil. Maximum recommended usage - 25% of total base oils. Cottonseed oil produces thick and lasting lather, in addition to having emollient properties. It can be vulnerable to spoilage depending on the season, so use less of this oil. Maximum recommended usage - 25% of total base oils.

Cyclomethicone - unmodified silicones. evaporates quickly after helping to carry oils into the top layer of epidermis. Cyclomethicone helps nutrients enter the hair shaft. Also referred to as dry oil perfume base. Gives a feel of dry oil. Can be used in most skin care formulations. Use in body spray straight with fo or eo. Has detangling properties and adds a silky feel to hair care formulations.
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Dimethicone (Dow Corning 300): A non-toxic, non-sensitizing, non- irritating oil soluble fluid used to enhance the feel and slip of lotions and creams. In hair conditioners it adds shine. It may also be used in massage oils of facial serums to reduce the drag of the base oils, especially around the delicate eye area. Add to your oil phase at .5-5%. Derived from Silica.
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Emu Oil
Emu Oil is reported to help heal skin tissues and help draw other ingredients (like mint) down into your skin so they are more effective. Use 1 ounce per pound at trace. Emu oil comes from the Emu bird and is an excellent natural source of essential fatty acids. It is hypoallergenic, does not clog pores and has been shown to have both antibacterial and regenerative properties for skin. It contains both vitamins E and A and is great for people with sensitive skin. Great as a skin conditioner all by itself or add a touch of lavender eo. Creates hard bar, stable lather, high conditiong. Iodine 90-103
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Evening Primrose Oil - A good oil for treating dry and mature skin. Evening primrose oil is absorbed quickly into skin and provides essential fatty acids that are reported to help inhibit bacterial growth and encourage antibodies so the skin is better able to defend against infection or inflammation. It is not recommended as an additive in soaps made for oily complexions. Recommended Usage - 2 tablesthingys per 5 pounds of soap, added at trace.
Evening primrose oil is absorbed quickly into skin and provides essential fatty acids that are reported to help inhibit bacterial growth and encourage antibodies so the skin is better able to defend against infection or inflammation. Pale, yellow oil with a pleasant nutty taste. It is extremely helpful in treating premenstrual problems, eczema and psoriasis. It's healing action results from its high content of gamma lineolic acid, an essential fatty acid that is vital to cell and body functions. This oil goes rancid quickly and should be stored in a cool place or refrigerated.
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Glycerin Vegetable: Chemically an alcohol, glycerin is a by product of soap manufacture. Valuable in cosmetics as a solvent, humectant, and emollient. When used as a humectant in creams/lotions use 2-5%.
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Grapeseed Oil - A clear, fine polyunsaturated oil with no particular odor. Good for body massage, as it is not sticky and leaves a satiny coating on the skin. This one feels wonderful in a massage. Grapeseed oil is a lightweight oil that absorbs into the skin quickly without leaving a heavy greasy feeling. Used in soaps as a superfatting oil. Use one ounce per pound at trace. Iodine 125-142
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Hazelnut Oil - Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil Good for slightly oily skins, hazelnut is mildly astringent and will penetrate easily. This oil stimulates circulation, making it very good for muscular problems. This pale amber oil has a pleasant aroma. It's composition is similar to Sweet Almond Oil for which it's often substituted. This is the only fixed nut oil with an astringent quality making it beneficial for oily skin. Hazelnut oil is slow to saponify. Hazelnut is an excellent moisturizer for soaps. It is low in saturated fatty acids, so use other more saturated fats to lessen your trace time and yield a harder bar. Recommended maximum usage - 20% of total oils. Iodine value 90-103
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Hempseed Oil
Hempseed oil is not as stable as some other oils and can spoil quickly. It creates a silky bar of soap even if it is only used to superfat your batch. It is a less saturated fat, and since it is prone to spoilage, keep it as a small percentage of your mix to avoid having a soft, squishy soap that may spoil in a few months. Usage - As a Superfatting at 5% at trace or Base oil at 20-30% but no more than 40%. This rich oil is high in essential omega fatty acids and proteins. This oil has a pleasant nutty smell and absorbs well into the skin. Its richness in nutrients makes this oil a great base for lip balm due to its healing and regenerative ingredients. In cosmetic use, such as in lip balm, THC has been removed from this oil. Iodine value 160-170
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Honey - (not an oil but can be used as an additive)
Honey is also a humectant, so it helps retain moisture on the skin in much the same way as glycerin. Use it at about 2 Tablesthingys per pound of oils, added at trace. Honey - (not an oil but can be used as an additive)

Jojoba Oil - Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil Although jojoba is a waxy liquid rather than an oil, it is often found in cosmetics because its powers of penetration are high and it does not become rancid. Excellent for hair and facial blends. (there is some evidence to suggest that jojoba may be an effective agent in the prevention of hair loss.) You will also find this in the form of Jojoba Spheres, they are tiny little exfoliating beads that are placed in many cleansing products. Jojoba helps to promote a stable lather and is good at conditioning skin. Because of its expense, it's usually used to superfat soap batches or in shampoo bars. It is an excellent emollient for skin conditions like psoriasis, because it has a chemical composition very close to the skin's own sebum. It is suitable for all skin types, beneficial for spotty and acne conditions, and good for sensitive and oily skin. It also helps to unclog the pores and remove any embedded grime, restores and conditions hair. When using Jojoba in soap, limit its usage to one or two ounces per pound at trace. Jojoba naturally accelerates tracing in soap recipes. Used as a Superfatting oil. Jojoba is very similar in composition to human natural skin oils. It penetrates the skin rapidly to nourish it. It also softens and moisturizes mature and dry skin. It has antioxidant properties and does not go rancid easily. Iodine value 80-85
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Kokum butter INCI: Garcinia Indica Seed Butter Comes from the Garcinia tree and has enormously high compositions of beneficial materials to help regenerate tired and worn skin cells and further supports elasticity and general flexibility of the skin wall. palmitic (2 - 6%), oleic (30 - 42%), stearic (50 - 62%), and linoleic (0 - 2/5) fatty. It can be used in many skin care products such as cleansing emulsions, creams, milks, lip balms, and products for damaged hair at 3 - 100%. Soap - Creates a hard bar with fluffy lather and very conditioning. Melts at skin temperature. White to pale yellow.
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Kukui Nut Oil
The kukui nut is native to Hawaii and is high in linoleic acid. It is quickly absorbed into the skin. Excellent for skin conditioning after sun exposure, as well as for acne, eczema, and psoriasis. It offers just the right amount of lubrication without leaving a greasy feeling. For soap making, use 2 tablesthingys added to 5 lbs of soap at trace just before incorporating the essential oils to add richness to the soap. A higher percentage, 10-20% of the total fats also makes an outstanding soap. The Kukui nut tree is the official tree of Hawaii and has been used locally for years. The oil is very permeable and its high penetrability and soothing properties aid in its use for soothing sunburns and chapped skin. The Kukui nut oil contains very high levels of the essential fatty acids linoleic and alpha-linolenic. This oil is readily absorbed into the skin, providing tissues the essential elements that it needs. Iodine value 160-175
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Lanolin comes from the oil glands in sheep’s wool. The separation of this ingredient is done after the wool has been sheered off and absolutely no harm comes to the sheep. Lanolin is excellent for dry, rough, and damaged skin because of its similarity to the lipids found in human skin.
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Lard is made from pig fat much like bacon fat. Its advantages are that it is cheap, easily obtainable, and makes a nice lathery, white bar of soap. This fat should be combined with vegetable oils such as coconut or palm to compensate for the lard's shortcomings Without other oils it can tend to be soft and not work very well in cold water. Use it as a base oil. Recommended at 70% max of total oils. Iodine value 43-45

Macadamia Oil - This oil is high in palmitoleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid that is rarely found in veggie oils, but is a natural component of skin sebum. It is an emollient oil and can be useful for the treatment of dry and mature skin. It is derived from the Macadamia Nut that so many of us love. Macadamia is a luxurious and slightly expensive oil. It has a long shelf life so it can be purchased in quantity for a good price. It is a wonderful addition to any soap. It is easily absorbed into the skin and acts as an emollient protecting skin cells from deterioration and thus leading to better condition for your skin. Use for superfatting your soap. Use 1 ounce per pound at trace. This cold pressed oil is high in palmitoleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid that acts as an antioxidant, preventing deterioration of cell membranes. It is excellent for skin conditioning, after exposure to the sun, and in sunscreen lotions. It's a skin lubricant and is easily absorbed into the skin. Palmitoleic acid does not occur in any other plant oil. Iodine value: 73-79
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Mango Butter Mangifera Indica (Mango) Seed Butter
Mango Butter is an exotic butter that is obtained from the Mangifera Indica native to the tropics. It is a soft solid butter that is yellow with a slight sweet scent. It is known to be very emollient, high oxidative ability, wound healing and regenerative properties and UV radiation protective properties. Use this luxurious butter in lip balms, lotions, lotion bars, creams, salves, facial care, body butters and soaps. It is a great moisturizer and should be used to superfat batches. Can be used at up to 15% of base or as a superfatting agent at 5% at trace. SAP VALUE 183-198
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Marula Oil - High dollar, $175 for a gallon. Similar properties to emu, except it’s a nut oil, from Africa. Used in skin and hair care formulations.

Mineral Oil: A mixture of refined hydrocarbons derived from Petroleum. Used in cosmetics because it will not spoil over time. It stays on the top of the skin giving a protective and shiny layer. Provide shine in lipsticks and glosses.

Monoi Oil, also known as Monoi de Tahiti
Monoi oil is expensive but luxurious product made from coconut oil. It oil has wonderful moisturizing properties and is great for your skin. Use it as a base oil at 60% or higher.
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Neem Oil
Extracted from the bark of the Neem Tree. This oil has the ability to treat a variety of skin disorders such as dandruff. Use as a base oil up to 40%. And it stinks. Iodine value 84-94
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Olive Oil - This oil will penetrate easily and soften the skin, but it has a strong aroma and is often best blended with other cold-pressed oils. Olive oil is warming and calming and is effective in the treatment of rheumatism and some skin disorders. This is the same oil that you can pick up in your grocery store. I generally go with DaVinci or Bertollini.
Olive oil is excellent as a base oil in soaps, either in whole (Castile soap) or in part. Avoid extra virgin olive oil. It is great for cooking but not for soap making. The lower the grade the better. Olive Oil prevents the loss of your skin's natural moisture, softens skin and attracts external moisture to your skin. It helps keeps your skin soft, supple and younger looking. If you're making an especially mild soap use Olive oil. Use as a base oil up to 100% Iodine value 79-95
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Palm Oil, also known as Vegetable Tallow
Palm oil makes a hard bar that cleans well and is also mild. It is a good substitute for tallow in all-vegetable soaps. The quality of Palm oil is far superior to other vegetable oils that are filler oils. Palm oil is universal and used in many expensive luxury soaps. Use is as a Base oil at 20 - 30%. Iodine value 43-57
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Palm Kernel Oil Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil
Like Palm Oil, Palm Kernel oil makes a soap that is very hard and lathers well. It has most of the same qualities as palm oil. Use it as a Base oil at 20-30% Iodine value 37-42
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Peanut Oil Arachis Hypogaea (Peanut) Oil
Peanut oil contributes long-lasting lather to a soap. It is highly unsaturated though, so it is prone to spoilage. Avoid using more than 20%. Peanut oil is similar to olive and castor oils and has a good amount of vitamin E. Use is as a base oil up to a 20% maximum. Iodine value 93

Rice Bran Oil Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Oil
Rice Bran Oil is high in fatty acids and unsaponifiables and contains the highest amount of all natural Vitamin E in liquid form and is one of the gentlest oils to use. Use in all products for softening and moisturizing properties. Good for sensitive, mature, or delicate skin where additional moisturizing is desired, great for baby skin also. Its anti-oxidant properties also resist rancidity, so has very long shelf life. This oil is used for dry and flaky skin and adds body and luster to hair. Typical use levels in skin care 0.5% to 7.0%, in hair care 0.5% to 3.0%,
in sun care 0.5% to 10.0%. Soap Usage rate: 5-20% Rice Bran Oil is produced from the bran of the rice kernel. Add Rice Bran Oil to your products containing Hempseed, Borage, or other fragile oils to help extend the shelf life and stability. particularly high in fatty acids and rich in unsaponifiables. Good sub for part of olive oil in soap formulations.
SAP Value of 180-195
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Rose Hips Oil - Rosa Canina Fruit Oil Originating from Chile, harvested from a species of wild rose, this polyunsaturated oil has been used in clinical practice in topical applications with amazing results by Chilean dermatologists. Acne, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, cracked skin, aged and sun-damaged skin, scars, stretch marks, burns, wounds, and over pigmented skin have all been shown to benefit from rose hip oil. The amber seeds inside the hips contain an oil high in essential fatty acids, GLA and Vitamin C. It has valuable properties for treating skin problems. This oil may reduce scarring and heals burns. It may help diminish broken capillaries. It is not recommended for acne prone or blemished skin as it may aggravate it.
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Safflower Oil Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil
Safflower oil is an unsaturated oil and should be used in combination with palm, coconut, or a similar oil. It is valuable for its moisturizing properties.
Use it as Base oil up to 60%. 20% of total is more highly recommended. An unsaturated oil with moisturizing properties. Excellent for use in cosmetics as it will not irritate the skin or aggravate acne. It has one of the highest linoleic acid content of all oils. Iodine value 86-119
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Sesame Seed Oil
Sesame oil is said to be good for Psoriasis, Eczema, Rheumatism, and Arthritis. It makes a good superfatting oil due to its moisturizing ability. It has a strong nutty scent. It makes a softish bar unless used in conjunction with other, more saturated oils. Use it as a 10% addition to base oils. Iodine value 105-115
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Shea Butter Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter) Fruit
Shea Butter is one of the best butters available for dry, cracked, and chapped skin. with it's melting point below skin temperature, and its ability to be readily absorbed by the skin, makes this a wonderful butter for all your body essential needs. Soaps, lip balms, body butters, lotion bars, creams, lotions, facial products and foot care preparations etc..This is also a great butter to melt down and package on it's own.
SAP VALUE 170-185 Also called African Karite Butter. Shea is extremely moisturizing and gentle to the skin. It soaps it gives a very luxurious feel to the finished product. It may also be added to creams and lotions or used alone for massage, a skin cream or a lip balm. It is remarkably high in unsaponifiable making it an excellent material for super fatting soaps. Add 1-2 Tablesthingys melted per 5 lbs. of soap just before adding scents. Shea butter is a wonderful superfatting agent and contains a large percentage of ingredients that do not react with the lye thus remaining in the soap to nourish your skin. Use it with your base at up to 20% of your total oils or as a superfatting agent at 1 2/3 tablesthingys per 5 pounds of oils added at trace. Iodine value 54-71
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Silicones: A widely used group of oils and compounds derived from the mineral silica. Silicones are water repellant and very stable. There is no known toxicity when used externally.

(Vegetable) Shortening or Soybean Oil
Vegetable shortening is normally made out of soybean oil. It is cheap and readily available and produces a mild, stable lather. Use it in combination with other exotic or moisturizing oils. Use this as half of your fats to keep costs down. It is a good filler and makes a very hard white bar when used alone and when mixed with other oils it makes a wonderful hard bar of soap. Use vegetable shortening as a base oil or combine it with other, harder oils for better results. Recommend use as base up to 50% of total oils. Iodine value 90-95
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Stearic Acid: Palm source triple milled white flakes. A waxy natural fatty acid widely used in cosmetics and soap. Used to thicken creams and lotions. Use approximately 2% in emulsions.
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Sunflower Oil - Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil Good for all skin types, it has only a mild aroma. Sunflower oil contains vitamins A, B, D, E, and F, a source of unsaturated fatty acids that help control the metabolic rate and balance cholestererol levels. Vitamin F plays a role in the proper functioning of the skin and can help regulate sebaceous glands. This oil is good for treating skin condtiions and dandruff as well as leg ulcers and bruises. A light and pleasant oil to use. high in linoleic acid. Excellent for use in cosmetics as it will not irritate the skin or aggravate acne.
Sunflower oil is a less expensive alternative to olive oil. Despite that, don't store it longer than six months. It is a less saturated oil so you want to combine it with other, more saturated, oils -- try to avoid using more than about 15-20% sunflower oil. It can make your soaps take longer to trace and to harden. Use as a Base oil up to 20% Iodine value 85
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Red Turkey Oil: (sulfated castor oil) This oil may be used as a base for essential oil baths and it will disperse in the water without leaving an oily ring around the bath. It is water-soluble. It is also possible to add Polysorbate 80 to your oils and get the same water dispersible effect.

Wheat Germ Oil - Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil This heavy, rich oil is often too greasy to be used on its own, but when blended with other carrier oils it will help slow rancidity. This oil contains high concentrations of natural Vitamin E. This oil is thick, sticky and antioxidant. It's also very rich in vitamin E. Can be used to nourish dry or cracked skin and soothes skin problems such as eczema and psoriasis. Helps to prevent and reduce scarring and may prevent stretch marks. Mature skin, in particular, will benefit from wheat germ oil. On its own, wheat germ oil oxidizes rapidly. It should be kept refrigerated. Use at 1 ounce per pound added at trace. Iodine value 125-135